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太阳能热水器水箱的新技术!
来源:http://www.sdlntyn.com 发布时间:2020-2-5 17:18:42 浏览次数:102
真空管太阳能热水器水箱不承压,通过排气口与外部环境相联通以保持常压。在北方地区冬季常发生排气口结冰堵塞问题,造成水箱涨裂或吸瘪,影响使用。本文向读者推荐一项低成本、无动力、不耗电的太阳能热水器水箱防冻堵新技术。
The water tank of the vacuum tube solar water heater is not pressurized, and is connected with the external environment through the exhaust port to maintain the normal pressure. In the north of China, the problem of ice blocking often occurs at the exhaust port in winter, which causes the water tank to expand, crack or shrink, affecting the use. This paper recommends a new technology of anti freezing and blocking water tank of solar water heater with low cost, no power and no power consumption.
1冻堵问题与预防方法
1. Freezing and blocking problems and prevention methods
我国北方大部分地区的冬季夜间气温一般都在-10℃以下,极寒地区甚至达到-30℃以下,且风力较大。在夜间,真空管太阳能热水器水箱要留存一定量的热水才能保证真空管不至于被冻裂、冻坏。水箱内的蒸汽、冷凝水或湿空气在流经排气口时遇冷可能会冷凝结冰出现冻堵现象,冻堵问题的严重程度与排气口开口朝向有关。
In most areas of northern China, the temperature at night in winter is generally below - 10 ℃, even below - 30 ℃ in extremely cold areas, and the wind is strong. At night, a certain amount of hot water should be kept in the water tank of the vacuum tube solar water heater to ensure that the vacuum tube will not be frozen and cracked. When the steam, condensate or wet air in the water tank passes through the exhaust port, it may freeze and freeze, and the severity of the problem is related to the opening direction of the exhaust port.
1上排气2侧排气3下排气
1 upper exhaust 2 side exhaust 3 lower exhaust
如图所示,真空管太阳能热水器水箱排气口开口朝向有上排气、侧排气和下排气三种方式,在保温性能和冻堵问题等方面有所区别:
As shown in the figure, there are three ways of vent opening of vacuum tube solar water heater water tank: up vent, side vent and down vent, which are different in heat preservation performance and freeze blocking problems
(1)上排气和侧排气
(1) Upper exhaust and side exhaust
由于蒸汽的密度不到空气的2/3,当排气口位置在水箱上部时,无论开口向上还是向侧面,无论水箱内外压力是否平衡,蒸汽总是容易向环境飘散,而冷空气总是不断流入水箱内置换掉蒸汽占据的空间。这种情形就像暖水瓶瓶塞打开一样,蒸汽外逸带走大量热量,导致水箱保温效果降低,水箱水温下降过快,从而降低太阳能整体热效率。其优点是蒸汽持续流动、热量持续供给,即使外部气温很低,在排气口也不容易结冰,冻堵事故只在极端状况下发生。
Because the density of the steam is less than 2 / 3 of the air, when the exhaust port is located at the upper part of the water tank, whether the opening is upward or sideways, whether the pressure inside and outside the water tank is balanced or not, the steam is always easy to drift to the environment, and the cold air always flows into the water tank to replace the space occupied by the steam. In this case, just like the cork of a thermos bottle is opened, the steam escaping takes a lot of heat away, which leads to the reduction of the heat preservation effect of the water tank and the rapid drop of the water temperature of the water tank, thus reducing the overall thermal efficiency of solar energy. Its advantages are continuous flow of steam and continuous supply of heat. Even if the external temperature is very low, it is not easy to freeze at the exhaust port, and the freezing accident only occurs in extreme conditions.
(2)下排气
(2) lower exhaust
排气口向下的排气方式可以很好地避免水箱热量散失,其内部如图2所示。下排气与上排气从表象上看区别很大,上排气口可以明显看出热气外冒而下排气口没有任何明显现象。下排气方式下,只要水箱内外压力一致,水箱内就不会有蒸汽或湿空气逸出,事实上水箱内的压力是逐渐下降的,会吸入少量冷空气。冷空气与排气管内湿空气换热会产生一部分冷凝水,水箱内也会有冷凝水进入排气管,冷凝水在排气口下端水嘴处积聚,在低于-8℃的环境温度下,极易结冰将排气口堵死造成冻堵。
The downward exhaust way of the exhaust port can well avoid the heat loss of the water tank, and the internal part is shown in Figure 2. From the appearance, the difference between the lower exhaust and the upper exhaust is very big. It can be seen that the hot gas is emitted from the upper exhaust port and there is no obvious phenomenon at the lower exhaust port. Under the lower exhaust mode, as long as the pressure inside and outside the water tank is the same, there will be no steam or wet air escaping from the water tank. In fact, the pressure in the water tank will gradually decrease and a small amount of cold air will be inhaled. The heat exchange between the cold air and the wet air in the exhaust pipe will produce a part of condensate, and there will also be condensate in the water tank into the exhaust pipe. The condensate will accumulate at the water nozzle at the lower end of the exhaust port. Under the ambient temperature lower than - 8 ℃, it is easy to freeze and block the exhaust port, resulting in freezing.
水箱排气口冻堵是真空管太阳能热水器在寒冷地区冬季使用过程中非常常见的一个问题。目前太阳能水箱排气口水嘴的防冻堵都是采用加热方式解决的,要么增加电伴热带,要么由水箱内热水引出热量至水嘴作为伴热,都会造成额外的能耗。
Freezing and blocking of water tank outlet is a common problem in the use of vacuum tube solar water heater in winter in cold area. At present, the anti freezing and blocking of the outlet nozzle of the solar water tank are all solved by heating, either by increasing the electric tracing band, or by drawing heat from the hot water in the water tank to the water nozzle as tracing heat, which will cause additional energy consumption.
2超疏水防冻堵水嘴
2 Super drain, anti freezing and water plugging nozzle
最近,山东省科学院太阳能重点实验室采用表面涂层的方法,开发了一种内壁超疏水的水嘴,解决了寒冷地区太阳能热水器水箱排气口的冻堵问题。
Recently, the Key Laboratory of solar energy of Shandong Academy of Sciences has developed a kind of super hydrophobic water nozzle on the inner wall by using the method of surface coating, which solves the problem of freezing and blocking the air outlet of the water tank of solar water heater in cold area.
该技术以低表面能有机树脂做功能材料,添加纳米耐磨骨料,通过分步不同温度条件下熟化,形成低表面能涂层覆盖的纳米结构表面,具有荷叶仿生学的超疏水性能,涂层达到超疏水程度(接触角大于150°),实现水嘴内壁水滴完全不粘附,所以不可能出现水滴在水嘴处积聚成冰的现象。
In this technology, the organic resin with low surface energy is used as the functional material, and the nano wear-resistant aggregate is added. The nano structure surface covered by the coating with low surface energy is formed by aging at different temperatures step by step. It has the superhydrophobic property of lotus leaf bionics. The coating reaches the superhydrophobic degree (contact angle is greater than 150 °), and the water drops on the inner wall of the water nozzle are not adhered completely, so it is impossible to have water drops on the water nozzle The accumulation of ice at.